democracy is a work in progress
Sources2021-03-15T14:50:20-05:00

Sources – March 2021 Update

Gerrymandering and Other Anti-Competitive Rules

Adam Liptak, “Supreme Court Bars Challenges to Partisan Gerrymandering”, The New York Times, June 27, 2019, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/06/27/us/politics/supreme-court-gerrymandering.html, accessed Feb 16, 2021

“Annual State Legislative Competitiveness Report: Vol. 10, 2020”, Ballotpedia, updated Feb 5, 2021, https://ballotpedia.org/Annual_State_Legislative_Competitiveness_Report:_Vol._10,_2020, accessed Feb 16, 2021

All Things Considered, “Caucuses Or Primaries? Why States Might Pick One Or The Other”, NPR, Feb 5, 2020, https://www.npr.org/2020/02/05/803183343/caucuses-or-primaries-why-states-might-pick-one-or-the-other, accessed Feb 16, 2021

Christopher Ingraham, “What 60 years of political gerrymandering looks like”, The Washington Post, May 21, 2014, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2014/05/21/what-60-years-of-political-gerrymandering-looks-like/, accessed Feb 16, 2021

“Closed Primary”, Ballotpedia, April 23, 2020, https://ballotpedia.org/Closed_primary#2020_presidential_primaries_and_caucuses, accessed 16 Feb, 2021

Craig Gilbert, “New election data highlights the ongoing impact of 2011 GOP redistricting in Wisconsin”, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, Dec 6, 2018, https://www.jsonline.com/story/news/blogs/wisconsin-voter/2018/12/06/wisconsin-gerrymandering-data-shows-stark-impact-redistricting/2219092002/, accessed Feb 16, 2021

David de la Fuente, “Kill Caucuses and Closed Primaries”, Third Way, April 9, 2019, https://www.thirdway.org/memo/kill-caucuses-and-closed-primaries, accessed Feb 16, 2021

Gustavo López and Antonio Flores, “Dislike of candidates or campaign issues was most common reason for not voting in 2016”, Pew Research Center, June 1, 2017, https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/06/01/dislike-of-candidates-or-campaign-issues-was-most-common-reason-for-not-voting-in-2016/, accessed Feb 16 2021

“Independent Voter Fact Sheet,” Open Primaries, 2019, https://www.openprimaries.org/independent_voter_fact_sheet, accessed Feb 16, 2021

Jason Hanna, “Coons defeats O’Donnell in Delaware”, CNN, Nov 3, 2010, https://www.cnn.com/2010/POLITICS/11/02/senate.delaware/index.html, accessed Feb 16, 2021

Jeremy Gruber et al, “Let All Voters Vote: Independents and the Expansion of Voting Rights in the United States”, Touro Law Review: Vol. 35: No. 2 , Article 4. 2019, https://digitalcommons.tourolaw.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2967&context=lawreview, accessed Feb 16, 2021

Katherine Gehl and Michael Porter, “Why competition in the politics industry is failing America”, Harvard Business School, September 2017, https://www.hbs.edu/competitiveness/Documents/why-competition-in-the-politics-industry-is-failing-america.pdf, accessed Feb 16, 2021

Michael Li and Laura Royden, “Extreme Maps”, Brennan Center for Justice, May 9, 2017, https://www.brennancenter.org/our-work/research-reports/extreme-maps, accessed Feb 16, 2021

“Party Affiliation”, Gallup, Jan 21-Feb 2, 2021, https://www.google.com/url?q=https://news.gallup.com/poll/15370/party-affiliation.aspx&sa=D&source=editors&ust=1613430759248000&usg=AOvVaw3Rs4yPIVTGVrVJs4bgUWJ8, accessed Feb 16, 2021

“Sore loser laws in the 50 states”, Ballotpedia, Aug 2014, https://ballotpedia.org/Sore_loser_laws_in_the_50_states, accessed Feb 16, 2021

Yereth Rosen, “Senator Lisa Murkowski wins Alaska write-in campaign”, Reuters, Nov 17, 2010, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-elections-murkowski/senator-lisa-murkowski-wins-alaska-write-in-campaign-idUSTRE6AG51C20101118, accessed Feb 16, 2021

Voter Suppression

Angela Caputo et al, “They Didn’t Vote… Now They Can’t”, APM Reports, Oct 19, 2018, https://www.apmreports.org/story/2018/10/19/georgia-voter-purge, accessed Feb 17, 2021

Becky Little, “How the ‘Party of Lincoln’ Won Over the Once Democratic South”, History.com, Apr 10, 2019, https://www.history.com/news/how-the-party-of-lincoln-won-over-the-once-democratic-south, accessed Feb 16, 2021

“Democracy Diverted: Polling Place Closures and the Right to Vote”, the Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights, September 2019, https://civilrights.org/democracy-diverted/, accessed Feb 17, 2021

Joan Walsh, “Will North Carolina Lead the Way to a New South?”, The Nation, Nov 7, 2016, https://www.thenation.com/article/archive/will-north-carolina-lead-the-way-to-a-new-south/, accessed Feb 17, 2021

Jonathan Shorman and Steve Vockrodt, “Dodge City out-of-town polling place adds to fears of voter suppression in Kansas”, Wichita Eagle, Oct 26, 2018, https://www.kansas.com/news/politics-government/article220557195.html, accessed Feb 17, 2021

Katie Sanders and Politifact, “Florida voters mistakenly purged in 2000”, Tampa Bay Times, Jun 14, 2012, https://www.tampabay.com/news/politics/stateroundup/florida-voters-mistakenly-purged-in-2000/1235456/, accessed Feb 17, 2021

Kevin Morris et al, “Purges: A Growing Threat to the Right to Vote”, Brennan Center for Justice, July 20, 2018, https://www.brennancenter.org/our-work/research-reports/purges-growing-threat-right-vote, accessed Feb 16, 2021

Kevin Morris, “Voter Purge Rates Remain High, Analysis Finds”, Brennan Center for Justice, Aug 21, 2019, https://www.brennancenter.org/our-work/analysis-opinion/voter-purge-rates-remain-high-analysis-finds, accessed Feb 17, 2021

Matt Vasilogambros, “Polling Places Remain a Target Ahead of November Elections”, Pew Trusts, Sept 4, 2018, https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/blogs/stateline/2018/09/04/polling-places-remain-a-target-ahead-of-november-elections, accessed Feb 16, 2021

“New Voting Restrictions in America”, Brennan Center for Justice, July 3, 2019, https://www.brennancenter.org/sites/default/files/legal-work/New%20Voting%20Restrictions.pdf, accessed Feb 16, 2021

“Provisional Ballots”, National Conference of State Legislatures, Sept 17, 2020, https://www.ncsl.org/research/elections-and-campaigns/provisional-ballots.aspx, accessed Feb 23, 2021

“Resources on Voter Fraud Claims”, Brennan Center for Justice, June 26, 2017, https://www.brennancenter.org/analysis/resources-voter-fraud-claims, accessed Feb 16, 2021

“Section 5 Stands, Now Congress Must Strengthen Voting Rights Act”, Brennan Center for Justice, June 25, 2013, https://www.brennancenter.org/our-work/analysis-opinion/section-5-stands-now-congress-must-strengthen-voting-rights-act, accessed Feb 16, 2021

“The Effects of Shelby County v. Holder”, Brennan Center for Justice, Aug 6, 2018, https://www.brennancenter.org/our-work/policy-solutions/effects-shelby-county-v-holder, accessed Feb 17, 2021

US Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit Case No. 16-1468, July 29, 2016, https://www.ca4.uscourts.gov/Opinions/Published/161468.P.pdf, accessed Feb 16, 2021

“Voter Identification Requirements | Voter ID Laws”, National Conference of State Legislatures, Aug 25, 2020, https://www.ncsl.org/research/elections-and-campaigns/voter-id.aspx, accessed Feb 16, 2021

“Voter ID Study Shows Turnout Effects in 2016 Wisconsin Presidential Election”, University of Wisconsin – Madison, Sept 25, 2017, https://elections.wisc.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/483/2018/02/Voter-ID-Study-Release.pdf, accessed Feb 16, 2021

“Voting Rights Groups Respond to Carter-Baker Commission Report on Election Reform”, Brennan Center for Justice, Sept 19, 2005, https://www.brennancenter.org/our-work/analysis-opinion/voting-rights-groups-respond-carter-baker-commission-report-election, accessed Feb 16, 2021

Election Security

Aaron Blake, “Trump just comes out and says it: The GOP is hurt when it’s easier to vote”, Washington Post, Mar 30, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2020/03/30/trump-voting-republicans/, accessed Feb 19, 2021

Christina Cassidy, “Lessons learned from 2016, but US faces new election threats”, AP, Jan 26, 2020, https://apnews.com/article/502ea2d593ed7ae74162c8eb46290b8a, accessed Feb 18, 2021

CNN, “Trump’s impeachment trial begins with stunning riot video”, CNN, Feb 9, 2021, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ybzgRN5ZxfI, accessed Feb 17, 2021

Danny Hakim and Richard Fausset, “In Georgia, a New District Attorney Starts Circling Trump and His Allies”, The New York Times, Feb 13, 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/2021/02/13/us/politics/fani-willis-trump.html, accessed Feb 18, 2021

David Graham, “There’s a Reason the Election Went so Smoothly”, The Atlantic, Nov 18, 2020, https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2020/11/election-worked-surprisingly-well/617127/, accessed Feb 18, 2021

Dina Temple-Raston, “Voter Websites In California And Florida Could Be Vulnerable To Hacks, Report Finds”, NPR, Oct 22, 2020, https://www.npr.org/2020/10/22/925388871/voter-websites-in-california-and-florida-could-be-vulnerable-to-hacks-report-fin, accessed Feb 18, 2021

Ellen Weintraub, “Foreign spending in our elections is a threat to our national sovereignty”, The Washington Post, June 20, 2019, https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/foreign-spending-in-our-elections-is-a-threat-to-our-national-sovereignty/2019/06/20/80ecb2a8-9372-11e9-b58a-a6a9afaa0e3e_story.html, accessed Feb 18, 2021

Ely Portillo and Jim Morrill, “Bladen County operative at center of NC election fraud investigation indicted, arrested”, Charlotte Observer, Apr 23, 2019, https://www.charlotteobserver.com/article226864674.html, accessed Feb 17, 2021

Evan Osnos et al, “Trump, Putin, and the New Cold War”, The New Yorker, Feb 24, 2017, https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2017/03/06/trump-putin-and-the-new-cold-war, accessed Feb 18, 2021

“JOINT STATEMENT FROM ELECTIONS INFRASTRUCTURE GOVERNMENT COORDINATING COUNCIL & THE ELECTION INFRASTRUCTURE SECTOR COORDINATING EXECUTIVE COMMITTEES”, Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency, Nov 12, 2020, https://www.cisa.gov/news/2020/11/12/joint-statement-elections-infrastructure-government-coordinating-council-election, accessed Feb 18, 2021

Ken Dilanian, “U.S. patchwork of state, county election computer networks still vulnerable to cyberattacks”, NBC News, Oct 2, 2020, https://www.nbcnews.com/politics/2020-election/u-s-patchwork-state-county-election-computer-networks-still-vulnerable-n1241337, accessed Feb 18, 2021

Kevin Collier, “Microsoft says foreign hackers still actively targeting US political targets”, CNN, July 17, 2019, https://www.cnn.com/2019/07/17/politics/microsoft-foreign-hackers/index.html, accessed Feb 18, 2021

“Key Findings of the Mueller Report”, American Constitution Society, March 2019, https://www.acslaw.org/projects/the-presidential-investigation-education-project/other-resources/key-findings-of-the-mueller-report/, accessed Feb 18, 2021

Lisa Danetz, “Mail Ballot Security Features: A Primer”, Brennan Center for Justice, Oct 16, 2020, https://www.brennancenter.org/our-work/research-reports/mail-ballot-security-features-primer, accessed Feb 19, 2020

Mark Mazzetti, “G.O.P.-Led Senate Panel Details Ties Between 2016 Trump Campaign and Russia”, The New York Times, Nov 4, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/08/18/us/politics/senate-intelligence-russian-interference-report.html, accessed Feb 18, 2021

Rick Pearson, “State officials say Russian hackers stole 76K Illinois voters’ info in 2016, not 500K”, Chicago Tribune, Aug 8, 2018, https://www.chicagotribune.com/politics/ct-met-illinois-elections-board-russia-2016-election-hacking-20180808-story.html, accessed Feb 18, 2021

Rob Arthur and Allison McCann, “How the Gutting of the Voting Rights Act led to Hundreds of Closed Polls”, VICE News, Oct 16, 2018, https://news.vice.com/en_us/article/kz58qx/how-the-gutting-of-the-voting-rights-act-led-to-closed-polls, accessed Feb 17, 2021

Robert Mueller, “Report On The Investigation Into Russian Interference In The 2016 Presidential Election”, Department of Justice, March 2019, https://www.justice.gov/storage/report.pdf, accessed Feb 18, 2021

Ron Elving, “Fear of Foreign Interference in U.S. Elections Dates from Nation’s Founding”, NPR, Jun 14, 2019, https://wamu.org/story/19/06/14/fear-of-foreign-interference-in-u-s-elections-dates-from-nations-founding/, accessed Feb 19, 2021

Sam Levine, Alvin Chang, “Revealed: evidence shows huge mail slowdowns after Trump ally took over”, The Guardian, Sep 21, 2020, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2020/sep/21/usps-post-office-mail-slowdowns-louis-dejoy, accessed Feb 19, 2021

Sheera Frenkel and Julian Barnes, “Russians Again Targeting Americans With Disinformation, Facebook and Twitter Say”, The New York Times, Sept 1, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/09/01/technology/facebook-russia-disinformation-election.html, accessed Feb 18, 2021

“Who We Are”, Electronic Registration Information Center, 2018, https://ericstates.org/who-we-are/, accessed Feb 17, 2021

Zolan Kanno-Youngs, “F.B.I. Director Warns of Russian Interference and White Supremacist Violence”, The New York Times, Sept 17, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/09/17/us/politics/fbi-russia.html, accessed Feb 18, 2021

Structural Factors

Ashley Parker, “Trump and allies ratchet up disinformation efforts in late stage of campaign”, Washington Post, Sept 6, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/trump-disinformation-campaign/2020/09/06/f34f080a-eeca-11ea-a21a-0fbbe90cfd8c_story.html, accessed Feb 18, 2021

Drew Desilver, “U.S. population keeps growing, but House of Representatives is same size as in Taft era”, Pew Research Center, May 31, 2018, https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/05/31/u-s-population-keeps-growing-but-house-of-representatives-is-same-size-as-in-taft-era/, accessed Feb 11, 2021

Dylan Matthews, “The case for massively expanding the US House of Representatives, in one chart”, https://www.vox.com/2018/6/4/17417452/congress-representation-ratio-district-size-chart-graph, accessed Feb 18, 2021

Editorial Board, “America Needs a Bigger House”, New York Times, Nov 2018, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2018/11/09/opinion/expanded-house-representatives-size.html, accessed on Jul 28, 2019

“Map of General-Election Campaign Events and TV Ad Spending by 2020 Presidential Candidates”, National Popular Vote, https://www.nationalpopularvote.com/map-general-election-campaign-events-and-tv-ad-spending-2020-presidential-candidates, accessed Feb 18, 2021

Ian Millhiser, “Trump admits he’s stalling pandemic relief to make it harder to vote”, Vox.com, Aug 13, 2020, https://www.vox.com/2020/8/13/21366319/trump-post-office-vote-by-mail-fox-sabotage-pandemic-covid-19-coronavirus, accessed Feb 18, 2021

“List of U.S. states by population”, Simple English Wikipedia, Jan 18, 2021, https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_U.S._states_by_population, accessed Feb 18, 2021

Nate Silver, “The Senate’s Rural Skew Makes It Very Hard For Democrats To Win The Supreme Court”, FiveThirtyEight, Sept 20, 2020, https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/the-senates-rural-skew-makes-it-very-hard-for-democrats-to-win-the-supreme-court/, accessed Feb 18, 2021

“The U.S. Constitution”, National Constitution Center, https://constitutioncenter.org/interactive-constitution/full-text, accessed Feb 18, 2021“94% of 2016 Presidential Campaign Was in Just 12 Closely Divided States”, National Popular Vote, https://www.nationalpopularvote.com/campaign-events-2016, accessed Feb 18, 2021

Sources – Original Brief

Pew Research Center, Public Trust in Government: 1958 – 2019, Apr 11, 2019, https://www.people-press.org/2019/04/11/public-trust-in-government-1958-2019/, accessed Dec 1, 2019

Christopher Ingraham, “What 60 years of political gerrymandering looks like”, Washington Post, May 21, 2014, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2014/05/21/what-60-years-of-political-gerrymandering-looks-like/, accessed Oct 28, 2019

Brennan Center for Justice, “New Voting Restrictions in America”, Nov 19, 2019, https://www.brennancenter.org/our-work/research-reports/new-voting-restrictions-america, accessed Dec 5, 2019

Katherine M. Gehl and Michael E. Porter, Why Competition in the Politics Industry is Failing America, Harvard Business School, Sep 2017, https://www.hbs.edu/competitiveness/Documents/why-competition-in-the-politics-industry-is-failing-america.pdf, downloaded Sep 7, 2019

Jeremy Gruber, Michael A. Hardy, Harry Kresky, Let all voters vote: independents and the expansion of voting rights in the United States, Touro Law Review, Vol. 35 : No. 2 , Article 4, Jul 9, 2019, https://digitalcommons.tourolaw.edu/lawreview/vol35/iss2/4, accessed Aug 18, 2019.

Gallup, “Party Affiilation”, updated Sep 2019, https://news.gallup.com/poll/15370/party-affiliation.aspx, accessed Oct 28,2019

Pew Research Center, Political Independents: Who They Are, What They Think, Mar 14, 2019, https://www.people-press.org/2019/03/14/political-independents-who-they-are-what-they-think/, accessed Oct 28, 2019

Gustavo Lopez, Antonio Flores, “Dislike of candidates or campaign issues was most common reason for not voting in 2016”, Pew Research Center, Jun 1, 2017, https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/06/01/dislike-of-candidates-or-campaign-issues-was-most-common-reason-for-not-voting-in-2016/, accessed Aug 4, 2019

Jeffrey B. Lewis, Brandon DeVine, Lincoln Pitcher, and Kenneth C. Martis. (2013) Digital Boundary Definitions of United States Congressional Districts, 1789-2012. [Data file and code book]. Retrieved from http://cdmaps.polisci.ucla.edu on September 13, 2019.

Ballotpedia, “Annual State Legislative Competitiveness Report, Volume 8, 2018”, updated Aug 27, 2018, https://ballotpedia.org/Annual_State_Legislative_Competitiveness_Report:_Vol._8,_2018, accessed Jul 23, 2019

Walter Olson, “Partisan Gerrymandering: Time to Get Serious About Remedies”, Cato Institute, Jun 27, 2019, https://www.cato.org/blog/partisan-gerrymandering-time-get-serious-about-remedies, Nov 18, 2019

Open Primaries, Petition drive, https://www.openprimaries.org/unrig-it-2020, accessed Jul 2019

David de la Fuente, “Kill Caucuses and Closed Primaries”, Third Way, Apr 9, 2019, https://www.thirdway.org/memo/kill-caucuses-and-closed-primaries, accessed Oct 28, 2019

Ballotpedia, “Closed Primary”, https://ballotpedia.org/Closed_primary, accessed Nov. 20, 2019

Matt Vasilogambros, “Polling Places Remain a Target Ahead of November Elections”, Pew Charitable Trusts, Sep 4, 2018, https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/blogs/stateline/2018/09/04/polling-places-remain-a-target-ahead-of-november-elections, accessed Nov 25, 2019

Brennan Center for Justice, “Election 2016: Restrictive Voting Laws by the Numbers”, Sep 28, 2016, https://www.brennancenter.org/our-work/research-reports/election-2016-restrictive-voting-laws-numbers#raceandvoting, Aug 2019

“We Cannot Resign Ourselves to Dismay and Disenfranchisement,”  New York Times, Opinion By Stacey Abrams, May 15, 2019, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/15/opinion/stacey-abrams-voting.html?smid=nytcore-ios-share, accessed Jun 4, 2019.

National Conference of State Legislatures, “History of Voter ID”, May 31, 2017, https://perma.cc/2MSV-TREU, accessed Sep 2019

US Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, No. 16-1468, Jun 21, 2016, pg. 11, https://www.ca4.uscourts.gov/Opinions/Published/161468.P.pdf, downloaded Dec 1, 2019

“Rigged: How Voter Suppression Threw Wisconsin to Trump,” Ari Berman, Mother Jones, November/December 2017, https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2017/10/voter-suppression-wisconsin-election-2016, accessed on Jul 21, 2019

Salvador Rizzo, “Hillary Clinton’s claims about voter suppression in Georgia and Wisconsin”, Washington Post, Mar 9, 2019, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2019/03/06/hillary-clintons-claims-about-voter-suppression-georgia-wisconsin/, accessed Dec 3, 2019

Angela Caputo, Geoff Hing, Johnny Kauffman, “They Didn’t Vote … Now They Can’t”, American Public Media, Oct 19, 2018, https://www.apmreports.org/story/2018/10/19/georgia-voter-purge, accessed Oct 13, 2019

Kevin Morris, “Voter Purge Rates Remain High, Analysis Finds”,  Brennan Center for Justice, Aug 1, 2019, https://www.brennancenter.org/our-work/analysis-opinion/voter-purge-rates-remain-high-analysis-finds, accessed on September 11, 2019

Katie Sanders & Politifact, “Florida voters mistakenly purged in 2000”, Tampa Bay Times, Jun 14, 2012, https://www.tampabay.com/news/politics/stateroundup/florida-voters-mistakenly-purged-in-2000/1235456/, accessed Nov 24, 2019

Leadership Conference Education Fund, Democracy Diverted, Sep 2019, https://civilrights.org/democracy-diverted/, PDF downloaded Dec 2, 2019

Chris McGreal, “Dodge City polling place debacle: voter suppression or incompetence?”, The Guardian, Oct 28, 2018, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2018/oct/28/dodge-city-polling-place-voter-suppression-voting-rights, accessed Nov 24, 2019

Ari Berman, “The GOP’s Attack on Voters Rights Was the Most Under-Covered Story of 2016”, The Nation, Nov 9, 2016, https://www.thenation.com/article/the-gops-attack-on-voting-rights-was-the-most-under-covered-story-of-2016/ , accessed on Sep 4, 2019

Paul Gronke and others, “Convenience Voting”, Annual Review for Political Science 11 (19) (2008): 437–455, http://people.reed.edu/~gronkep/docs/Gronke2008-Convenience_Voting.pdf, accessed on Sep 17, 2019

Vann R. Newkirk II, “What Early Voting in North Carolina Actually Reveals”, The Atlantic, Published Nov 8, 2016, https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2016/11/north-carolina-early-voting/506963/,  accessed Jul 14, 2019

Brian Miller, “The Bureaucracy of Voter Registration Prevents Millions from Voting”, Nonprofitvote.org, May 5, 2019, https://www.nonprofitvote.org/bureaucracy-voter-registration-prevents-millions-voting/ , accessed on Oct 1, 2019

U.S. Census Bureau, “Voting in America: A Look at the 2016 Presidential Election,” published May 10, 2017, https://www.census.gov/newsroom/blogs/random-samplings/2017/05/voting_in_america.html, accessed Jul 25, 2019

Danielle Root, Aadam Barclay, “Voter Suppression During the 2018 Midterm Elections: A Comprehensive Survey of Voter Suppression and Other Election Day Problems”, Center for American Progress, Nov 20, 2018, downloaded from  https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/democracy/reports/2018/11/20/461296/voter-suppression-2018-midterm-elections/,  accessed Jul 28, 2019

Ely Portillo, Jim Morrill, “Bladen County operative at center of NC election fraud investigation indicted, arrested”, The Charlotte Observer, Feb 27, 2019, https://www.charlotteobserver.com/news/politics-government/article226864674.html, accessed Dec 2, 2019

Brennan Center for Justice, “Voting Machines & Ballot Design”, https://www.brennancenter.org/issues/defend-our-elections/election-security/voting-machines-infrastructure,  accessed Jul 7, 2019

Jack Gillum, Jessica Huseman, “The Overlooked Weak Link in Election Security”, ProPublica Electionland,  Sep 14, 2018, https://www.propublica.org/article/the-overlooked-weak-link-in-election-security, accessed Aug 11, 2019

Karen Hobert Flynn, “As Hackers Target U.S. Voting Machines, We Need Leaders Who’ll Put Country Over Party”, Common Cause, Jul 27, 2017, https://www.justsecurity.org/43619/hackers-target-u-s-voting-machines-leaders-wholl-put-country-party/, accessed Aug 18, 2019

Ellen L. Weintraub, “Foreign spending in our elections isn’t trivial”, Washington Post, Jun 20, 2019, https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/foreign-spending-in-our-elections-is-a-threat-to-our-national-sovereignty/2019/06/20/80ecb2a8-9372-11e9-b58a-a6a9afaa0e3e_story.html, accessed on Aug 14, 2019

David Hawkings, “A small burst of bipartisan Hill activity to combat election hacking”, The Fulcrum,  Jul 18, 2019, https://thefulcrum.us/voting/election-hacking-senate?utm_source=The+Fulcrum&utm_campaign=f3dfe8be68-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2019_07_18_07_12&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_083501d5a2-f3dfe8be68-309850137, accessed Aug 4, 2019

Elaine Kamarck, “A short history of campaign dirty tricks before Twitter and Facebook”, Brookings, Jul 11, 2019, https://www.brookings.edu/blog/fixgov/2019/07/11/a-short-history-of-campaign-dirty-tricks-before-twitter-and-facebook/, accessed Aug 17, 2019

EqualCitizens.US, “Equal Votes: Our Fight to Fix the Electoral College”,  https://equalcitizens.us/equal-votes/, accessed Jul 19, 2019

Ronald Brownstein, “Small states are getting a much bigger say in who gets on Supreme Court”, CNN Politics, Jul 10, 2018, https://www.cnn.com/2018/07/10/politics/small-states-supreme-court/index.html, accessed on Sep 30, 2019

Editorial Board, “America Needs a Bigger House”, New York Times, Nov 2018, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2018/11/09/opinion/expanded-house-representatives-size.html, accessed on Jul 28, 2019

Ballotpedia, “State legislative chambers that use multi-member districts,” https://ballotpedia.org/State_legislative_chambers_that_use_multi-member_districts, accessed Sep 5, 2019

Editorial Board, “A Congress for Every American — One way to improve the ‘People’s House’: elect multiple members per district”, New York Times, Nov 10, 2018, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2018/11/10/opinion/house-representatives-size-multi-member.html , accessed on Oct 1, 2019

Dan Hopkins, “What We Know About Voter ID Laws”, FiveThirtyEight, Aug 21, 2019, https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/what-we-know-about-voter-id-laws/, accessed Sep 18, 2019

Tom Burt, “A paperless record for every vote: It’s time for Congress to act”, Roll Call, Jun 7, 2019, https://www.rollcall.com/news/opinion/paper-record-every-voter-time-congress-act, accessed Sep 19, 2019

Frances Moore Lappe, Adam Eichen, Daring Democracy: Igniting Power, Meaning and Connection for the America We Want, Boston: Beacon Press, 2017

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Related Problems: Money in Politics, Income and Wealth Inequality

Contributors: George LinzerMichael Deal, Kyle Mullins

Reviewed by: Center for the Study of the Presidency and Congress

Published: December 5, 2019

Last Updated: June 16, 2021

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